Problems with Plate Tectonics

Plate Tectonics Definition - original theory 6-8 plates, now over 100. Each plate moving centimeters per year on a plume of convected rock from below.

1. Each plate about 30 miles thick.

2. Plates subduct or dive below other causing volcanism, earthquakes and mountain ranges. I.e. "The Ring of Fire"

3. Some plates slide along others causing fault areas and earthquakes. Ie the San Andreas fault.

1. Mid Ocean Ridge

46,000 mile long mountain ridge under the ocean that circles the globe like a seam of a baseball and intersects in a Y under the Indian Ocean. Composed of Basalt.

Said to be the uplift zone where the magma from the convection currents erupts and push the continents apart. (Seafloor spreading)

Called the "fracture zone"

Not all fracture zones are parallel, some actually overlap and others intersect. Some overlapping areas are over 10 miles long and apparently not spreading.

2. Is subduction or overthrusting possible?

Plates 30 miles thick composed of primarily granite.

Angle of incline q (30o)

Compressive force sc (1.3 x 109 dynes / cm2)

Length L (350 km)

Thickness t (80 km)

Density of plate p1 (3.2 gm/cm3)

Density of rock plate is pushed though is p2 (3.5 gm/cm3)

Solid to Solid friction at depth h is m. (0.6)

Gravity is g (980 cm/sec2)

It is assumed that the compressive force sc is at the same angle q

and that the compressive force does not exceed the compressive strength of the rock.

Also we will assume that the drag force F = 0

(Net Thrust)+(Body Forces) > (Friction on top and bottom surfaces)

(sct-F)+g(p2-p1)Lt sin q > (p1g(h/2)Lm)+(p1g(h/2)+p2g t cos q) Lm

0.024 + 0.094 > (4.375 + 1.894) .06

0.118 > 3.7614


Overthrusting has the same delimma. If a slab of rock is over 4.9km the compressive strength to push it is greater than the compressive strength of the rock and the rock will crumble.

3. Ocean trenches. Caused by subduction of plates. NOT!

Seismic reflection profiles of trenches show almost no distortion of sedimentary layers in the trenches. If they were subducting the top layers of sediment would be scraped off.

4. Seamounts and Tablemounts

Undersea structures show a sea level that was 3 - 6000 ft. below today sea level.

5. Earthquakes

Much is yet to be known about earthquakes.

Precursors 1. Ground swelling. 2. Water table level changes

According to plate tectonics earthquakes occur along plate boundaries.

But many quakes occur far from boundaries and many occur far deeper than the subduction depth.

If two plates were rubbing along each other for centuries then the friction would cause massive heating. Geothermal drilling has not borne that out.

 6. Magnetic variations of the seafloor.

1960's studies showed "magnetic reversals" on the mid ocean ridges that mirrored each other on each side.

"Magnetic reversals" are in truth magnetic intensity variances. Many of the intensity bands are perpendicular to the ridges.

7. Submarine canyons

Several hundred V shaped submarine canyons are on the ocean at the mouths of major rivers that exceed both the depth and length of the Grand Canyon.

Underwater erosion cannot produce the force to erode these canyons 15,000 ft below the surface.

8. Coal and Oil deposits at the South Pole

Fossilized tree trunks 24 ft. long and 2 ft. thick.

30 layers of coal deposits 3-4 ft. thick.

According to plate tectonics the South Pole has always been inside the south arctic circle.

9. Glaciers and Ice Ages

Glaciers and snow reflect the sun's radiation causing more cold, more snow and more glaciers. Conversely, as glaciers melt more land absorbs the sun's radiation and thus melts more snow etc.

10. Frozen Mammoths

Thousands of frozen carcasses of mammoths, some rhinoceros and musk ox have been found quick-frozen in the northern arctic latitudes.

Temperatures of at least -150o to freeze and leave stomach contents undisturbed. Carcasses show signs of struggling against being inundated with mud and water. Also could large herds of such animals live in the arctic today?

11. Major Mountain ranges and Overthrusts

See subduction point above. Cannot be formed by.

Also many show signs of folding of rock. Can hard rock be folded even with long slow compressive force? No, the rock would crumble unless it was wet when folded and hardened chemically later.

12. Volcanoes and Lava

Magma is commonly about 1800o F and liquid.

Only the outer core, which lies 1800 - 3200 miles below the surface, is liquid.

(This also presents a problem in plate tectonics, as to where are the belts)

The Magma chambers are about 60 miles below the earth. How did they get there?

At depths of 4-5 miles the pressure in the rock would close off the cracks. And if the magma rose through the cooler rock it would solidify and close off the crack.

Heat diffuses, so what concentrated heat source caused:

1. Columbia Plateau 50,000 mi2 avg. 2 mile deep.

2. Deccan Plateau 200,000 mi2 avg. 3/4 mile deep.

3. Ontong-Java Plateau on ocean floor is 25 times more extensive that the Deccan plateau.

13. Geothermal heat

Two of the deepest holes are at Russia's Kola Peninsula and Germany's northeastern Bavaria. The holes are 7.5 and 5.6 miles respectively. (Neither hole penetrated to the underlying basalt.)

What they found:

1. Hot flowing mineralized water.

2. Crushed granite

3. Salt water cracks (twice as salty as the ocean)

4. A greater than expected rise in temperature with depth.

The variance in heating due to depth is over 600% in different areas.

Complex mathematical models of solutions to spherical heat conduction are hopelessly out of sync with the variations actually found.

14. Strata

1. The strata are much too uniform in their hardness and cementing.

2. There is too much CaCO3 or limestone based on present processes even going back billions of years.

10 to 15% of the sedimentary rock on the continents are limestone.

Under the Bahamas the limestone is 3 miles thick.

The oceans are full of dissolved limestone.

Where did all the calcium and carbon come from?

15. Metamorphic rock

Formed from intense pressure, heat and flowing water. The pressure and heat would be equivalent to a 23-mile high mountain. Raising rock 23 miles to be exposed at the surface is quite a feat. Also, the flowing water is quite a trick, as water will not seep deeper than 5 miles.

A huge enigma.

16. Plateaus

Relatively flat regions that are uplifted at min. 500 ft above the surrounding terrain.

Continents are granite floating on basalt.

What mechanism could cause large areas to rise up to a mile in the air?

1. Colorado Plateau

Convection currents in the solid rock 40 to 50 km below are presumed to have carried approximately 2,500,000 cubic miles of lighter granitic rock from somewhere to product the uplift and down growth. (M discontinuity or Moho is 6 miles deeper)

2. Tibetan Plateau.

750,000 sq. mi. uplifted avg. 3 miles. With the Himalayan range uplifted an avg. of 5 miles. This took about 25,000,000 cubic miles of material.

Where was the area of subsidence where all this rock was moved?

17. Salt Domes

In many areas salt deposits are buried deep below the earth. 100,000 sq. mi. and a mile thick.

Any process going on today cannot explain large deposits such as this.

18 Fossil graveyards

Fossils form rarely today because they require rapid burying of the plant or animal so they do not decay.

Huge reefs of fossil exist today with billions of fossils in them cemented in an enormous amount of sediments.

Evaluating Theories

1. Process.

Ability of a theory to explain many diverse observations strengthens its validity.

2. Parsimony

The infrequent use of assumptions. If many new assumptions are constantly being added to explain new observations the theory is weakened.

3. Prediction

Predicting unusual conditions or results if one looks in the right place, if it follows the first two criteria above, then can test a theory.




1. Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas were joined by rock across a

much narrower space than occupied by the Atlantic today.

2. A large amount of water, with about twice the mineral content of the

ocean was trapped in interconnected chambers that averaged about 5/8 mile thick and was about 10 miles below the earth. This was at the Moho level. This is about 1.5 million cubic miles of water.

3. The pressure of the water in the chambers was increasing. The mechanism of pressure is unimportant.

4. No canopy existed or was unimportant in the process.

The Four Phases of the Hydroplate Theory

Phase 1: The Rupture Phase

1. Increasing pressure in the subterranean water causes the crust to "balloon" out, stretching critical weak points.

2. The rock shell reaches its breaking point in what is now the mid-Atlantic, but what was then a layer of thinner continent that spanned the Americas and Europe and Africa.

3. A microscopic crack forms and quickly spreads as stress propagationís cause the crack to spread at about 2 miles per second (nearly the speed of sound in rock) and follows the path of least resistance in a circle around the earth, meeting in a Y in the Indian Ocean about 2 hours later.

4. The "Fountains of the Deep" roar out of the ten mile deep slit in the crust at supersonic speeds, into and above the atmosphere. Some water fragmented into rain droplets and rained on the earth in torrents never seen again. Other water jets above the atmosphere and freezes falling back as frozen ice and mud.


Phase 2: The Flood Phase

1. The force of the water erodes the continental shelf and underlying basalt causing huge tides of muddy sludge, quickly burying millions of plants and animals in huge reefs or shoals.

2. The waters, losing pressure, still surge out the slit for days, inundating the earth and covering up the mountains. The sediments are nearly equal in volume as the water at this time and "liquification" occurs causing a sorting out of the dead animals in layers according to size and mass leaving vast layers we see today.

3. The temperature of the water gushing out, due to the kinetic energy from the compression of the weight of the continents, attains a temperature of about 1000 F. This hot water, less dense than the colder water, rises to the top and evaporates, leaving its heavy mineral content behind. The addition of these minerals supersaturates the water below and the minerals settle out in a pasty layer of salts below several layers of heavier sediment. This formed the huge salt layers and domes today by pluming.

4. As the pressure decreased dissolved CO2 (20% of volcanic gas is CO2, 70% is water) bubbles out combining with Ca ions (about 35% of the eroded sediments was Basalt of which 6% is Ca) precipitating vast sheets of CaCO3 or limestone. Limestone deposits hold more C and Ca than today's atmosphere, oceans, coal and oil deposits, and living matter combined. The purity of most of the deposits today show they were formed by precipitation not formed by myriad of small shelled animals dying over eons and drifting down to be compacted and cemented together.

5. Most vegetation is uprooted and floated to regions where it accumulated in vast quantities. Later during the continental drift phase this vegetation is rapidly covered and heated and turned to coal and oil.

Phase 3: The Continental Drift Phase

1. Rock is elastic when placed under high pressure and can undergo a "phase change" where the crystalline structure "compacts" together and occupies a smaller volume. Conversely when the pressure is released, the "phase change" acts in reverse and the rock expands. This has been seen in rock quarries and mines around the world.


2. The area of the Atlantic was where the rupture occurred first. The continents have eroded wide apart and the underlying basalt undergoes a phase change and expands rapidly several miles high. This ripple effect follows around the earth on the original path moving around the earth in about half a day. The strange fracture zones and magnetic anomalies form.

3. The continents, still with some water between them and the underlying rock, begin to move away from this upthrust by gravity. They accelerate away from the mid oceanic ridge formation, riding on a layer of water acting as a lubricating film.

4. The continents begin to meet resistance of two kinds.

a.) The water film is depleted and the continents ride rock on rock. The massive inertia of the continent causing enormous kinetic energy releases in heat (magma pools) and buckling and thickening of the plate itself.

b.) The American plates move west and the European plates move east and both meet the upsurging mid Pacific ridge.

The Ring of Fire and the deep-sea trenches are formed by this sudden and catastrophic halt causing massive upward and downward buckling. The Indian plate literally slams into the Asian continent forming the Deccan uplift, America's plates buckle and form the western mountain ranges, huge compressive events everywhere form new mountains and plateaus that rise out of the flood waters. Much of the material is still wet and fold and bend in the patterns we see today in many mountains.

Phase 4: The Recovery Phase

Where did all the water go?

1. As the compression event occurs the parts of the continental plates that were the weakest buckled and rose into mountains out of the water. They also thickened downward and shut off the now much weakened flow of water. Magma from the pools left beneath the leading edge of the plate forced itself up into the shattered and cracked granite and left deposits like the Black Canyon of the Gunnison or the inner gorge of the Grand Canyon.

2. The water began to settle into the now wide basin formed by the eroding of the plates and the original rupture line. This wide basin (as wide as the oceans today was about 6 to 8 miles deep originally. Thus the Ocean level was much lower than today.

3. As the now foreshortened and thickened continental plates began to settle down on the basalt floor their weight began to uplift the ocean floor.

4. Meanwhile the huge lakes left on the now uplifted land drained away leaving huge drainage canyons in what is now deep ocean.

a.) Grand and Hopi Lakes drained through the area where the Grand Canyon is today. In several weeks of time more water poured through the gap of what is the Marble Canyon and the Grand Canyon than is in all the Great Lakes today.

b.) The Black Sea carved out the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles flowing into the Mediterranean Lake.

c.) The Mediterranean Lake flowed into the much lower Atlantic forming a deep V notch at the straits of Gibraltar.

d.) A huge lake in Central California flowed out through the gap under the Golden Gate Bridge.

5. Deep earthquakes (200 -450Km) are formed by the phase transformation of many minerals that undergo a "packing" or "unpacking" of the atomic structure under intense pressure. These are ongoing as areas where the continents are thickened are compressing the underlying basalt layer and other areas where the plate has moved or been eroded is "unpacking". This phase transformation is rapid and causes shock waves.

6. Shallow earthquakes are caused by the last of the trapped water that seeps up into cracks, and depending on the pressure widening the cracks, until movement can occur, lubricated by the water.

7. Frictional heating at the bases of the hydroplates causes the water to heat up and increased evaporation to occur. This in turn causes heavy cloud cover and increased precipitation.

The frictional heating also causes an increase in volcanism. Increased ejecta into the atmosphere causes a "nuclear winter"

Large temperature differences between the cool uplands and the warm ocean cause high winds carrying massive moisture.

The increased cold and the increased precipitation caused massive snowfall in the newly risen mountains. (As much as 100 times today's)

The "Ice Age"occurs.

8. Tablemounts rise up from the ocean floors and are eroded by the wave action of the much lower ocean.

9. Eventually the temperature differential between the land and the ocean moderates which ends the "Ice Age" and the glaciers begin to retreat, putting their water back into the ocean, bringing the ocean levels up to today's.

10. In the fracture zones, the fractures fill with sediment. Basalt contains magnetite and hematite that are strongly magnetic. At a Curie Point of 5780 C the basalt loses its magnetic properties. The fractures, filled with sediment, circulate cool water down into them and pump it back out again as a "black smoker". This cools the Basalt down past the Curie Point and causes magnetic intensities at the crack. Exactly as seen today.




The Ark of Noah was a barge-like structure probably built of cypress or cedar ("gopherwood"). It was about 450 feet long by 75 feet in beam, and 45 feet high. Such a boat would displace 20,000 tons and have a gross tonnage of 14,000 tons. There were three decks, one door (in the side) and a window 18 inches high probably running around the top of the vessel under the roof. The ark was caulked "within and without" with pitch (Hebrew: "kopher" = "to cover,"---translated "atonement" elsewhere in the Old Testament).

The capacity of the ark was about 522 railroad cars, (1.4 million cubic feet). Only 188 railroad cars would be required to hold a pair of each of the 17,600 species of animals presently known to man, according to Dr. John Morris. (This number of cars includes food supplies for a year's subsistence). From this we can assume that many perhaps as many as two-third of the species originally created by God are already extinct. The ark, (The Hebrew word for ark is related to the Egyptian word "db't," = "coffin"), was under construction, on dry land presumably far from water, for 120 years. Although Noah ("a preacher of righteousness") sought to persuade the people of the his generation to come into the ark and so be saved, none responded

"...when God's patience waited in the days of Noah, during the building of the ark, in which a few, that is, eight persons, were saved through water." (1 Peter 3:20)

The ark is a beautiful picture of salvation by grace through faith. There was no other way to be saved from destruction in that day except by coming into the God's ark of refuge. The world was warned for 120 years of impending judgment. The ark had one door in the side. Later in history Jesus said,

"Truly, truly, I say to you, I am the door of the sheep. All who came before me are thieves and robbers; but the sheep did not heed them. I am the door; if any one enters by me, he will be saved, and will go in and out and find pasture. The thief comes only to steal and kill and destroy; I came that they may have life, and have it abundantly. I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep." (John 10:7-11).

Noah's name means "comfort" or "rest," and looks ahead to the words of Jesus,

"Come to me all you who are weary and heavy laden and I will give you rest."

The ark was likewise a coffin. Those who come into Christ by faith are identified with Him in his death, burial and resurrection. God called from "within" the ark inviting Noah and his family to enter in and find refuge.

The two calendars:

And the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying,

This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you. (Exo 12:1-2 KJV)

Months Civil (Old Religious (New)
Tishri (Ethanim) 1 7
Cheshvan (Bul) 2 8
Chisleu 3 9
Tevet 4 10
Sh'vat 5 11
Adar 6 12
Nisan (Aviv) 7 1
IIyar (Zif) 8 2
Sivan 9 3
Tammuz 10 4
Av 11 5
Elul 12 6

The lambs were to be killed by the head of the household (transferred later to the priests in the Temple Deut. 16:1-6) "between the evenings" of the 14th, or at twilight.

Passover occurred that night. This was Friday the 13th on the Egyptian calendar. Jesus was killed on the 14th of Nisan, 32 AD at the ninth hour or 9:00 A.M.

By 32 AD there were so many lambs to be inspected the 10th - the 13th was the time of inspection and the 14th from 6:00 A.M. to 6:00 P.M. was the time to kill them.

When was Noah's new beginning?

And the ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat. (Gen. 8:4 KJV)

Remember though that the 7th month in the old calendar is the 1st month in the new. So the ark came to rest on Ararat on the 17th of Nisan or on the same day as Christ was resurrected and the same day as Israel "passed" from death to life though the waters of the Red Sea.

How long was Jesus in the grave? Some argue that any part of a day counts as a whole day and Jesus was crucified on Friday and resurrected on Sunday. Others see the mention of the High Sabbath in Matt 27:62 as a "Shabbaton" in the middle of the week and Jesus was crucified on Wed. the 14th of Nisan and resurrected on Sunday the 17th of Nisan or the Festival of Firstfruits.

Possible Final Week.

Friday 9th, In Bethany 6 day before Passover. John 12:1

Saturday 10th, Triumphal Entry, Matt. 21:5, Mark 11:17, Luke 19:28

Sunday 11th, Fig Tree Cursed, Matt. 21:18, Mark 11:12

Monday 12th, Conspirators Counsel, Matt 26:2, Mark 11:20, Luke 22:1

Tuesday, 13th, Last Supper, Matt. 26:17, Mark 14:7, Luke 22:7

Wednesday, 14th, Crucifixion, John 19:14, 31,42; Mark 15:42, Luke 23:17,54

Bones were to be broken to assure death prior to the Sabbath that started at 6:00 PM the 14th of Nisan. The Passover lamb was killed in the "evening" or from 3:00pm to 6:00pm. Jesus died at 3:00 or the 9th hour of Lk 23:17-54.

Thursday 15th, Beginning of Feast of Unleavened Bread, lasts 7 days with 1st and last being Sabbaths. High Sabbath, Passover.

Friday 16th, Women prepare spices

Saturday 17th, Sabbath, rested. Luke 23:56, "after Sabbaths Matt. 28:1 > 6:00 PM

In the end of the Sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre. (Mat 28:1 KJV)

Sunday 18th, He is risen!!!!